Judgment in Plain English

Hadiya Marriage Case

On April 9th, 2018, the Supreme Court delivered its judgment in two seperate concurring opinions. It reversed the Kerala High Court’s judgment, where it annuled Hadiya’s marriage to Shafin Jahan.



On May 24th 2017, Justices Surendra Mohan Kuriakose and Abraham Mathew of the Kerala High Court annulled Hadiya’s marriage to Mr. Shafin Jahan. The Kerala High Court judgement stated that ‘a girl aged 24 years is weak and vulnerable, capable of being exploited in many ways’. The High Court gave Hadiya’s parents custody of her. In response, Mr Shafin Jahan filed a special leave petition, challenging the judgement.

On March 8th 2018, the Supreme Court set aside the annulment of the marriage. The Bench comprised Chief Justice Dipak Misra, and Justices A. M. Khanwilkar and D. Y. Chandrachud. On April 9th 2018, it passed the judgement explaining the reasoning behind its decision.

In its judgement, the Supreme Court makes no mention of its order to the National Investigation Agency (NIA). The Court had ordered the NIA to investigate Hadiya’s marriage and conversion to Islam.


Summary of the judgment:

The High Court wrongly exercised its Habeas Corpus jurisdiction 
The writ of habeas corpus is ‘a great constitutional privilege’ or ‘the first security of civil liberty’. It is a remedy against illegal detention, which affects the liberty and freedom of the detainee. Its purpose is to see that no one is under illegal confinement, deprived of liberty without the sanction of the law. In this case, the High Court misused the habeas corpus. When Hadiya appeared before the High Court, she stated that she was not under illegal confinement. The High Court has no power to decide the ‘just’ way of life or ‘correct’ course of living for Hadiya. She has absolute autonomy over her person.

Moreover, in Hadiya’s case, the High Court was guided by social considerations. It was wrong and unnecessary to go into aspects of social radicalization in a writ of habeas corpus. It is the job of the law enforcement agencies to look into aspects of criminality. The Court should only look at whether the person has been detained without lawful authority. Further, the argument that Mr Jahan would take Ms Hadiya out of the country was also unnecessary to examine for a habeas corpus case. Apprehensions of any future activity must be governed and controlled by the State.

The High Court wrongly invoked the parens patriae jurisdiction
Parens patriae is the power of the State to intervene against an abusive or negligent parent or guardian. The State acts as the parent of such an individual. The courts can invoke this role only in exceptional cases where the individual is either mentally incompetent, or underage, or has either no parent/legal guardian or has an abusive one. Ms Hadiya is neither mentally incapacitated nor vulnerable. She equivocally expressed her choice, and the right to choose is a constitutionally guaranteed freedom and a facet of individual identity. It could not take precedence over social and moral values. A Constitutional Court must protect fundamental rights and thus could not reject Hadiya’s choice.

The High Court transgressed on constitutional rights

Ms Hadiya and Mr Shafin Jahan are adults, who decided to marry each other. Marital status is conferred through legislation or custom. The High Court was wrong in letting parental love and concern override the right of an adult to choose who she wishes to marry. Moreover, the Constitution guarantees that the ability to take such decisions is a part of liberty and individual autonomy. The right to marry a person of one’s choice is integral to Article 21. Choice of a partner lies within the exclusive domain of an individual, and is a part of the core zone of privacy, which is inviolable. Thus, the High Court was wrong in using its powers under Article 226 to annul Hadiya’s marriage with Shafin Jahan.