Decriminalisation of Adultery

Joseph Shine v Union of India

The Court decriminalised adultery, striking down Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 (IPC).



Petitioner: Joseph Shine

Lawyers: Kaleeswaram Raj; M.S. Suvidutt (AoR)

Respondent : Union of India

Lawyers: K.K. Venugopal; B.V.Balaram Das (AoR)

Intervenor: Vimochana; Partners for Law in Development

Lawyers: Meenakshi Arora; Jayna Kothari; Anindita Pujari (AoR); Liz Mathew (AoR)

Case Details

Case Number: WP (Crl.) 194/2017

Next Hearing:

Last Updated: June 20, 2022

Key Issues


Whether Section 497 is an excessive penal provision which needs to be decriminalised?


Whether exemption granted to married women under Section 497 violates the right to equality under the Constitution?


Whether Section 497 should be made gender neutral by including women as offenders?

Case Description

The Court unanimously struck down Section 497 IPC. The Bench produced four concurring opinions:

Joseph Shine, a non-resident Keralite, filed public interest litigation under Article 32 of the Constitution. The petition challenged the constitutionality of the offence of adultery under Section 497 of the IPC read with Section 198(2) of the Criminal Procedure Code, 1973.

Section 497 IPC criminalised adultery: it imposed culpability on a man who engages in sexual intercourse with another man’s wife.  Adultery was punishable with a maximum imprisonment of five years. Women though were exempted from prosecution. Section 497 IPC was inapplicable when a married man engaged in sexual intercourse with an unmarried woman.

Section 198(2) of CrPC specified how a complainant may file charges for offences committed under Sections 497 and 498 IPC. Section 198(2) CrPC specified that only the husband may file a complaint for the offence of adultery.

The Court reviewed the correctness of the precedents – Yusuf Abdul AzizSowmithri Vishnu and V. Revathi – which had in the past upheld Section 497 as constitutionally valid.

This case was first heard before a three-judge bench headed by the then Chief Justice Dipak Misra.

The three-judge bench referred the matter to a five-judge Constitution Bench and noted: ‘Prima facie, on a perusal of Section 497 of IPC, we find that it grants relief to the wife by treating her as a victim. It is also worthy to note that when an offence is committed by both of them, one is liable for the criminal offence, but the other is absolved. ..Ordinarily, the criminal law proceeds on gender neutrality, but in this provision, as we perceive, the said concept is absent.’

On 11 July the Centre filed an affidavit, arguing that diluting adultery in any form will impact the ‘sanctity of marriage‘.

The five-judge Bench started hearing the matter from August 1st 2018 onwards. On September 27th 2018, the Bench delivered its judgment, decriminalising adultery.